Prostatitis in men is an inflammatory process involving the prostate tissue. The disease is accompanied by pain that appears in the lower back, in the perineum, in the pelvis. The main manifestations are pain in the perineum and dysfunction of the lower urinary system.
Of all the urological diseases, urologists are the most common with prostatitis. It can develop unexpectedly (acute) against the background of general health or proceed for a long time, with periods of ups and downs, which indicates a chronic course. In addition, the second variant of the disease is diagnosed much more often.
The disease is independent and can also be associated with prostate hyperplasia or prostate cancer.
Inflammation does not occur on its own. The causes of prostatitis can be divided into bacterial and non-bacterial.
The acute infectious variant usually occurs in men under 35 years due to damage to the prostate gland by gram-negative bacteria - Escherichia coli, Proteus, Enterobacter. Inflammation also occurs due to infection with sexually transmitted infections - gonorrhea, chlamydia. In the chronic form, there may be many more reasons and the list will include informal germs.
The provoking factors for the development of the bacterial variant are:
- unprotected sex;
- AIDS or HIV infection.
- diarrhea or constipation;
- anal sex;
- sedentary life?
- inactive sex life.
- violations of personal hygiene.
Chronic non-communicable prostatitis is detected in men who complain of prolonged genital pain, but tests do not diagnose bacteria that could cause inflammation.
The exact cause of the development of this type of prostatitis has not been studied, but the factors that cause it are:
- emotional disorders?
- autoimmune disease;
- increased physical activity;
- lack of regular sex life.
- work related to weightlifting.
- chronic stress;
- congestion in prostate tissues.
- previously confirmed fibrotic changes in the prostate (according to TRUS results).
It is believed that inactive sex life, unprotected sex, hypothermia play an important role in the onset of the disease. Symptoms of prostatitis at least once in a lifetime affect 50% of the total male population of the planet.
Symptoms of acute prostatitis
Acute prostatitis occurs in several stages, which will move from one to the other, if you do not contact a specialist and do not stop the development of the disease in time.
The first stage is called acute bluetongue prostatitis. It starts with complaints of frequent painful urination. In the lower back and sacrum, as well as in the perineum, there is initially a slight pain, which increases rapidly.
Without treatment, the second stage occurs - acute follicular. At this time the pain becomes very intense, radiates to the anus and worsens during defecation. Urination is very difficult, sometimes there is acute urinary retention. The temperature does not exceed 38 degrees and only in rare cases can it be higher.
Acute parenchymal prostatitis is expressed in severe poisoning, the temperature reaches 38 ° C and above, chills appear. Urine retention is often observed, intense, throbbing pains appear in the perineum, the act of defecation is difficult.
Symptoms of chronic prostatitis
Sometimes chronic prostatitis occurs against the background of an acute inflammatory process. This is a distinct disease in which there is a primary chronic course that develops over a long period of time.
Often, the chronic course begins as a complication of the inflammatory process caused by various infectious agents - chlamydia, hair follicle, gonococcus. But severe manifestations are very rare, most often the disease occurs with little pain when urinating or in the perineum, with little discharge from the urethra. Often these manifestations go unnoticed even by the patient for a very long time.
Signs of prostatitis in men can appear in different ways, but they are all combined in three groups - pain syndrome, urinary incontinence, problems with sex life. Prostate tissues lack receptors, so they can not produce painful sensations. They occur when inflammation begins to move to the pelvic organs, which are richly ribbed. The pain in patients can be different - from slightly noticeable discomfort to intense and intense, which disturbs sleep and normal lifestyle. The pain can radiate to the sacrum, scrotum, waist, perineum, so self-diagnosis is useless here.
Problems with urination begin when the prostate grows in volume and begins to press on the urethra by reducing the ureter lumen. There is a frequent desire to urinate, a feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder. Usually such phenomena are expressed at the very beginning of the disease, in its initial stages, then they are compensated by the organism, but at a later stage, without adequate treatment, they reappear.
Problems with power in men can also be expressed in different ways. Patients complain of worsening erections, accelerated ejaculation, decreased sexual arousal. Gradually, the sexual disorders become more intense and at an advanced stage, the symptoms of prostatitis are complemented by impotence.
In inflammatory processes in the prostate gland, neighboring organs are also involved in the pathological process. This can have several consequences for prostatitis, for example:
- posterior urethritis or colicitis.
- abscess of the gland itself.
- sclerosis or fibrosis of the prostate.
- cysts and prostate stones.
- ejaculation disorder;
- erectile dysfunction.
To prevent the development of these serious complications, at the first symptoms of prostatitis and prostate adenoma, you should contact a urologist.
The urologist deals with the diagnosis and treatment of any form of prostatitis. If a tumor is suspected, the patient may be referred to an oncologist for consultation. Chronic long-term prostatitis, which is difficult to treat, may require consultation with an immunologist.
The characteristic clinical picture and the complaints of the patients help to make an accurate diagnosis quickly. The list of mandatory studies for the diagnosis of prostatitis looks like this:
- Bacteriological culture of urine.
- Prostate secretion analysis for microflora and antibiotic sensitivity.
- Correct examination of the prostate.
- Ultrasound of the prostate gland, which allows the identification of tumors, cysts, adenomas, as well as the differentiation of prostatitis from other urological and surgical diseases.
- Spermogram to rule out infertility.
It is difficult to independently determine the causes of the disease and even more so to cure it. Therefore, in order to avoid the development of serious complications and not to remain sterile in the future, at the first signs of the disease, a man should immediately contact a urologist.
Patients with recognized acute prostatitis without developing complications are treated on an external basis. Only with severe symptoms of poisoning and suspected purulent process, hospitalization is performed.
Antibiotics are the drugs of choice to fight inflammation. They are also used in chronic bacterial form. The drug is selected individually, taken as a course for 4-6 weeks. In severe cases, antibacterial agents are given intravenously, in all other cases - orally, in the form of capsules or tablets.
Another drug used for prostatitis is alpha1-blockers, which are prescribed in the presence of urine residues that are confirmed by ultrasound. They help facilitate urination, relax the muscles of the prostate and bladder. NSAIDs help relieve pain.
The treatment of prostatitis is carried out only completely and consistently. In addition to taking medication, your doctor will prescribe a prostate massage course and use physiotherapy to improve blood circulation to this organ. Surgical treatment is used only when abscesses and perforation of the seminal vesicles appear.
Prediction and prevention
The acute form without treatment often becomes chronic, which periodically worsens. Complete recovery is not always possible, however, with timely access to a doctor and taking all prescription medications, the discomfort, urination problems and pain can be eliminated.
Self-medication at home and the use of folk remedies can often be life threatening.
To prevent prostatitis, it is recommended to avoid hypothermia, empty the bladder in time, limit the use of coffee, spices and alcohol and stay sexually active as much as possible.